Jambupathe – Yamuna Kalyani


जम्बूपते – यमुनाकल्याणि
(Jambupathe- Yamuna Kalyani)

Jambupathe is a majestic composition describing the attributes and extolling the greatness of Lord Shiva at the Jambukeshwara temple (Appu Linga Kshetra) in Thiruvanaikaval, exposing the amsha of water element.

The temple, dedicated to Lord Jambukeshwara and Goddess Akhilandeshwari is located in a suburb of Tiruchi. According to temple folklore, this town used to be a Jambu tree forest and under one of the trees, Lord Shiva took the form of a lingam (swayambu) . Two of Shiva’s ganaas were cursed and born as an elephant and a spider in this forest. The elephant used to bring water and clean the lingam and decorate with flowers while the spider spun a web directly above the lingam to prevent leaves and dirt from falling on it. By serving the Lord thus, the two souls got salvation and the place itself derives its name from this (tiru+Anai+kAval). The Shiva lingam itself is situated on top of a stream of fresh water and water gushes all over and around the lingam in the sanctum sanctorum clearly establishing this as the “water lingam”. Dikshitar has exploited a North Indian raga – Yamuna kalyani for this wonderful kriti and embellishes the kriti with exotic creative dhrupad- style phrases.

जम्बूपते – यमुना कल्याणि – रुपकम्
पल्लवि:

जम्बूपते माम्पाहि निजानन्द अमृत बोधं देहि

अनुपल्लवि:

अम्बुजासनादि सकल देव नमन तुम्बुरुनुत हृदय तापोप शमन
अम्बुधि गःङ्गा कावेरी यमुना कम्बु कण्त्यखिलाण्डेश्वरी रमण

चरणम्:

पर्वतजा प्रार्त्थिताब्लिङ्ग विभो पःञ्चभूतमय प्रपःञ्चप्रभो
सर्वजीवदयाकर शम्भो सामजाटवि निलय स्वयम्भो
शर्व करुणा सुधासिन्धो शरणागत वत्सलार्त बन्धो
अनिर्वचनीय नादबिन्दो नित्यमौलि विधृत गःण्गेन्दो
निर्विकल्पक समाधिनिष्ट शिव कल्पकतरो
निर्विषेष चैतन्य निरञ्जन गुरुगुहगुरो

Pallavi:

jambUpatE mAm pAhi nijAnanda amritabOdham dEhi

Meaning:

Dikshitar starts the pallavi invoking the Lord and pleading Oh Lord (“patE”) of the rose apple tree (“jambU”) grove, protect (“pAhi”) me (“mAm”). Bestow upon me (“dEhi”), the awakening nectar (“amrita” + “bodham”) of true, undiminished bliss/happiness (“nija”+”Ananda”)”. He prays to Lord to give the devotee the nectar of true bliss (nijanandamruta bodham). Amruta or nectar is a fluid as we know.

Anupallavi:

ambujasanadi sakala deva namana
tumburu nuta hRdayatapopa Samana
ambudhi gangA kaveri yamuna
kambukanthyakhilandeswari ramana

Meaning:

DIkshitar continues the description of the Lord and brings in references to all the water bodies that signify the panchabhoota element of water. He describes the Lord as “The one worshipped and prayed to (“namana”) by Lord Brahma, the one seated on the lotus (“ambujAsana”) and all other Gods (“sakala dEva”). The one whose praises were sung by (“nuta”) the celestial musician “tumburu” and the one who removes the afflictions (“tApa”) of the devotees heart (“hRdaya”)”.

Dikshitar describes the Lord as “the embodiment of the sea (“ambudhi”) and the rivers Ganga, Kaveri and Yamuna” and as “the one who is the beloved (“ramaNa”) of Goddess Akhilandeswari, the one with a conch-like neck (“kambu”+”kaNTha”)”.

charaNam:

parvataja prarthitab linga vibho pancabhutamaya prapanca prabho
sarvajIva dayakara shambho sAmajatavInilaya svayambho
Sarva karuna sudha sindho Saranagata vatsalartabandho
anirvacanIya nadabindo nitya moulividhrta gangendo
nirvikalpaka samAdi nishta Siva kalpakataro
nirvisesha caitanya niranjana guruguha guro

Meaning:

DIkshitar mentions the Lord as “the resplendent one (“vibhO”) who was worshipped by (“prArthita”) Goddess Parvati, the one born of a mountain (“parvata”+”jA”). The Lord (“prabho”) of the universe (“prapanca”) who is an embodiment of the five elements (“pancabhUta”+”maya”)”. Dikshitar mentions the Lord as “the source of happiness (“shambhO”) and the one who shows compassion (“dayAkara”) on all creatures (“sarvajIva”)”. He says the town was originally a forest filled with elephants (“sAmajAtavi”) and describes the linga as “one which originated by itself (“svayambhO”)”. He continues to describe the Lord as “the nectarous river (“sudhA sindhO”) of mercy (“Sarva karunA”)” and “the dearest (“vatsala”) kin (“bandhO”) of the devotees who completely surrender unto him (“SaraNAgata”)”. He continues his praise of the lord and says he is “the one who is the unfathomable, indescribable (“anirvacanIya”) omkAra, the sound (“nAda”) from which the universe originated (“bindO”) and the one who always (“nitya”) wears on his head (“vidhRta”) the crescent (“mouli”) and Ganges”.

The final passage – madhyamakala sahitya- describes the Lord as “One who is forever in the state of absolute nothingness, a samadi state in which one completely loses self-consciousness (“nirvikalpa”) and one who is a wish-yielding tree (“kalpakataro”) in communion (“nishta”) with the auspicious energy of Siva. The one who is pure consciousness (“caitanya”) without any distinguishable attributes (“nirviSESha”) and the one from whom originated (“gurO”) the pristine/spotless (“niranjana”) Lord Guruguha”.